Ragland University of Wisconsin- Madison and Dr. Scott Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. It does not indicate endorsement by EPA or Battelle. Wllkening, C, Donovan, and H. Hall University of Wisconsin-Madison did much of the computer work.
The cooperation of J. Bowman Minnesota Copper-Nickel Study was most helpful. Terresterlal Impacts Edited by S. Loucks, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and E.
Gordon, University of Montana, Missoula. Additional help was provided by J. Minnesota Copper Nickel Project and P. Aquatic Impacts Edited by J. Schofield, Cornell University, Ithsca, N.
Roush, with acknowledgements of assistance from the staff of Mattsson vann vm silver i big air following organizations: Mustek University of Wisconsin-Madison, A.
For example, the opportunity to swim in rivers and lakes, to catch
Mattsson vann vm silver i big air fish in a beautiful lake or to camp in a wilderness area are certainly valuable.
But these objectives are certainly not necessary for our biological requirements. Other efforts for environmental protection are driven by the necessity to sustain the very existence of mankind.
Such examples are the protection of the ozone layer, preservation of our soil for food productivity, the maintenance of our forest lands for production of wood products, and the protection of terrestrial vegetation to assure gas balance in the atmosphere. This report presents evidence to suggest that not only is atmospheric pollutant deposition threatening a huge, beautiful wilderness area of the continent, but adds another large geographical area where evidence is appearing that the forests may be endangered for wood production and sustaining the atmospheric life supporting systems.
The principal steps have been to focus on: The results are considered in relation to a review of responses by terrestrial and aquatic organisms to changes in the chemistry of this environment. The "Mattsson vann vm silver i big air" aquatic and terrestrial receptors in the BWCA-VNP region are described quantitatively and this information is assessed in terms of what is currently known about the impacts of atmospheric pollutants.
Specific conclusions based on factual information, probable consequences and possible impacts of the proposed coal-fired power generating station at Atikokan, Ontario are presented. The study supports, in part, the conclusions reached previously concerning the predicted air concentrations of sulfur dioxide but differs significantly with the conclusions concerning the significance of future impacts.
When the total emissions from the proposed power plant are considered, the increased loadings of sulfuric and nitric acids, fly ash and mercury as an addition over and above other regional sources will, with high probability, have significant consequences for the sensitive receptors in the BWCA-VNP region, especially for the future of sport fisheries and other aquatic resources.
The contents do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U. Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commerical products constitute endorsement. Representative analysis of coal and fly-ash for major and trace components. The verticle scale represents typical cloud depths 22 3 Washout ratio as a function of precipitation rate.
There are only two seasons - summer and winter. From Backman and Brady, ; in Birkeland, 78 Outline map of the areas of sensitive soils shaded within the Kawishiwi Area Soils Map 93 Sample sheet of the soil map of the Kawishiwi Area showing sensitive soil areas shadedand the location of six potentially sensitive lakes see arrows Calcareous overburden will modify this picture somewhat.
From Galloway and Cowling, 99 Rainy Lake drainage basin emphasizing major watershed areas and major river flow patterns toward U. From Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Ill The relationship between size and mercury concentration of Walleye and Northern Pike taken from selected BWCA-VNP area lakes Regressions of log mercury concentration against total length for brook trout sampled from acid drainage lakes and limed, seepage and bog lakes in the Adirondacks.
Few wilderness areas have been the focus of as much persistent concern for protection from human impacts as Mattsson vann vm silver i big air the BWCA. The proposal by Ontario Hydro to build and operate a major coal-fired power plant north of the Quetico-BWCA wilderness complex has led to concern that air quality and ecosystems in the area could be inadvertently degraded, in spite of the years of effort and the legislation designed to protect it. Given the important natural resources represented by the waters, forests, and air of the BWCA, many Individuals, legislators and environmental organizations have been concerned with possible deficiencies in the available data, methodology, and scope, of the assessments carried out since the plant was first proposed.
These concerns have led to the decision by the U. Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with state agencies, universities, and other federal agencies to proceed with the present comprehensive study of potential impacts on the biota, air and water quality.
Additional data and new analytical tools, including a grid model which computes pollutant transformation and deposition, were available and appropriate for a second-level analysis.
Background Ontario Hydro, a crown corporation established by the Ontario govern- ment, requested in and received inProvincial approval to build an megawatt, coal-fired electrical generating station near Atikokan, Ontario.
The site is approximately 20 km 12 miles from the northern boundary of Quetico Provincial Park and about 55 km 38 miles from that portion of U. Criticism of the project from Canadian and U. Concern also has been addressed to the Ontario Hydro Environmental Analysis document, which, critics noted failed either to give-substantial evidence for its claim that no vegetation damage would result from SO2 emissions, or it's failure to treat adequately the problems of acid precipitation and deposition of pollutants in the Quetico-BWCA environment.
The boilers for these units would burn either low sulfur subbituminous coal from Alberta or lignite from Saskatchewan.
The proposed facility would feature electrostatic precipitators to control particulate emissions but no scrubbers would be used to minimize SO2 emissions. Planning for the Atikokan generating station began in ; in Ontario Hydro published an Environmental Analysis and Supplementary Report dealing with the project. The regulations of the recent Environmental Assessment Act of Ontario are not retroactive and thus do not apply to the Atikokan generating station. At that time the Canadian participants agreed to provide the U.
Mattsson vann vm silver i big air with additional information for a more precise evaluation of the project's potential transboundary effects. Technical studies were undertaken in each country of the SO2 concentrations expected to originate from this plant.
The results were exchanged in late December, Based on the additional Canadian information and in consultation with the Department of State, the U. Mattsson vann vm silver i big air Protection Agency proceeded with its initial review of the Atikokan proposal. The Department of State presented the results of the EPA initial review at a second international negotiations meeting held January 11, The EPA review included a literature survey on acid rain problems and projections of SO2 dispersal using the standard Gaussian plume dispersion mode.
At this January meeting, the U. Prevention of Significant Deterioration criteria. Covering classified wilderness, Class I is the most stringent standard. Also using the studies from both countries, the Canadians concluded at the January meeting that the predicted transboundary impact of SO2 emissions from the Atikokan generating station was below the threshold at which injurious environmental effects are known to occur.
Canadian officials confirmed that plant would meet all Canadian environmental requirements. The Canadian representatives indicated they could not, at that time, accept such a requirement.
The negotiators then focussed on discussing a referral to the IJC that would not include a construction moratorium, but would feature a program to monitor effects of the plant. On February 22,some members of the U. At this meeting the data base, methodology, and scope of the initial EPA study were reviewed In detail, especially the following: The consensus of those attending was that the Atikokan generating station had the potential to be a significant addition to the pollutants In the BWCA area for both air and water and that a much more comprehensive study to assess its significance should be undertaken.
On March 20th, the Canadian Embassy a diplomatic note rejecting any International Joint Commission reference, citing as its reason "the lack of indiction of any potential injury" to the U. The Canadian team also concluded that since the existing studies predicted that concentrations of the pollutant of major concern in the U. Environmental Protection Agency agreed to support a limited additional study of potential Impacts of the proposed Atikokan power plant, for which this report details results.
Inpassage of the Thye-Blatnik Act allowed condemnation and purchase by the federal government of private lands in the "roadless area", as it was then called. President Truman issued "Mattsson vann vm silver i big air" Air Ban instopping the float plane flights into the "roadless area" which allowed over-fishing of many lakes.
The Wilderness Act contained specific provisions allowing certain logging and motorized activity within portions of the BWCA but otherwise mandated specific wilderness protection. Recently passed legis- lation in the Congress now further limits nonwilderness uses of the BWCA. It is difficult adequately to describe the BWCA's significance to the American public as a conservation, scientific, and recreation resource for the present and future.
It is the only large lakeland unit of the United States wilderness system and one of the system's largest units of any kind.
East of the Rockies it is presently larger than all other existing units combined. Embracing the largest remaining virgin forest in the east, it attracts more recreationists than any other wilderness area in the nation, and lies within two days travel of nearly 50 million people.
As the last large, unmodified northern coniferous forest ecosystem in the eastern U. The attraction of the area appears to be not any single factor but a combination of related ones: However, the evergreen forests, clear water and air, rock outcrops and shallow soils that are the conspicuous ingredients of the BWCA landscape are all also unusually sensitive to regionally transported pollutants. The expansive and relatively unspoiled terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems In the BWCA are the major reasons for its as a unique resource in the United States; it is this recognition and uniqueness that have led to a protective degree of legislative and citizen vigilence, and, indirectly, to recent monitoring of air quality in northeastern Minnesota.
Clean Air Act amendments that guarantee maximum "Class I" protection for parks and wilderness areas. The intent of a Class I status is to assure long-term maintenance of air quality over an area at essentially the levels.
Class I applies to areas such as the BWCA in which practically any change in air quality would be regarded as signficant. Complementing the BWCA is Ontario's adjacent Quetico Provincial Park,ha 1, acres where logging and snowmobiles are banned, and motorboats are banned except on the periphery.
In the Ontario Provincial Government determined that Quetico did not fit into any of the usual classifications for provincial parks and declared it a "primitive wilderness". The importance of the BWCA to the United States has been greatly augmented by the forward- looking decisions made by Canadians in regard to the Quetico Park, established simultaneously inwith the Superior National Forest to create an international sanctuary. Approximately of the people who visit and enjoy the resources of Quetico are U.
Structure of the Study This study has been structured to capitalize on, rather than duplicate, any of the previous assessments of the Atikokan power plant. New data and modeling approaches were available from two major energy-impact studies sponsored by the EPA, and results of an intensive study in the northern Minnesota area by the State of Minnesota also were becoming available.
These results, together with the previously available Mattsson vann vm silver i big air could be used in conjunction with the issues identified during reviews of the previous assessments to set a new standard of analysis and evaluation.
Thus, the analysis and assessment process incorporated In this report is divided into three areas: Each area involved participants from the two principal research sites, Madison WIand Colstrip MTand other tech- nical consultants, and required the assessment data from sources throughout the region. The task of the nir quality modeling group was 1 to determine what can be predicted regarding the route and deposition of the proposed emissions in the region, using a regional grid model with provisions for chemical trans- formations and deposition; 2 to draw together information on current background levels of air pollutants and all of the emission sources in the northwestern Minnesota region and adjacent Canada; 3 to model Mattsson vann vm silver i big air current and proposed emissions so that the contribution of all regional inputs could be analyzed against a context of total loadings in the region.
The goals of the terrestrial and aquatic effects groups were 1 to characterize the sensitivity of the components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to the gaseous and particulate pollutants; 2 to summarize research results available on the responses of sensitive species as well as to summarize the overall sensitivity of these associated ecosystems to the current and expected levels of pollutants reaching the BWCA.
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