Paul Janecek Chairperson Dr. I am thankful for all aspiring guidance, invaluably constructive criticism and friendly advice during the work.
There is no words to describe the gratitude I feel towards Professor Olov Forsgren for being a fantastic mentor, a great friend and for introducing me to the world of Co-Design. It is a fact that this could never have happened without you. Many thanks to my colleagues at Ait, Karma Rana and Wannapa Pliansri for helping me getting through all the administrative hurdles, always being really good friends and supporting me when I was in doubt.
Thanks to Dr Roy Andersson for encouragement and moral support and to Professor Rodney Clark External Examiner for his strong support and for generously sharing his wisdom.
Colleagues Martin Borg and Eli Bytoft at the library, thanks for great help with reference Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda and formatting.
My very dear friend, Jon Selby, for helping with the language, thank you. Scandinavian Airlines SAS and Mark Municipality, thanks for giving me the opportunity to learn so much from you organisations.
Trusted colleagues in Vision House: Wilailux, Tittaya and Thanathep who have been covering for me in periods of absence.
Daniel, my wonderful son, thank you for your enthusiasm and understanding all these years. However, these benefits may not be great enough as the lack of possible human communication may lead to alienation between individuals and organisations. A robot will not hear and understand nuances in speech, with the risk that a potentially problematic situation may not be adequately resolved, leading to dissatisfaction with products and services delivered.
Many Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda measure the satisfaction with Avatars by analysing question and answer logs to see if the Avatar appears to give satisfactory answers. Few of these companies have actually asked their customers e. User Centered Design, Participatory Design and other methods are the preferred ways of developing such systems, but these do not include all stakeholders. This thesis addresses this exclusion of all stakeholders by applying a co-design research approach for developing avatars for e-Services.
Case studies from Mark Municipality, Sweden and Scandinavian Airlines Systems SAS are presented in this thesis showing how improvements of service quality aspects with Avatars can be managed by applying a four-step Co-Design research approach. From the first step of Co-Design, through interviews, log analysis and a channel survey, findings show that the failed dialogues with Avatars Eva SAS and Elin Mark are mainly concerned with five factors: In the second step of carrying out customer workshops, a number of ideal scenarios are suggested for the Avatars to perform better.
In the third step, SAS decision makers decided to implement the first three scenarios: Mark decision makers decided to shut down their Avatar Elin, as they did not believe they had the necessary resources. In the fourth step, another channel survey was carried out for SAS as well as a new log analysis in order to know the impact of the redevelopment of the above three scenarios.
An important result of the study was that the company adopted the continuous use of CoDesign as an approach to continuous improvement of the service quality performed by the Avatar Eva. This, for example, led to an increase of 14 percentage points on the users overall satisfaction level. The results also open a new set of questions framing the relation and transformation between Co-Design as a research approach for knowledge creation and CoDesign as a method for innovation and service quality improvements.
In addition, the staff of the supplier of the Avatar use it for other functions within and without SAS. Alm H and Forsgren O. Whether it is hard business or soft business, survival depends on the ability to adapt to the changes
Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda emerge in the business environment Awuah and Amal, ; Ball, ; Castaldi et al.
Changes Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda the last century and the impacts on the 21st century are primarily due to technological development, technology Awuah and Amal, leapfrogging and the introduction of innovative technology in the business environment by entrepreneurs and corporations with support from local government policies Brezis and Tsiddon, ; Fan and Watanabe, ; Madlener, ; Rabaiah, ; Margetts et al.
Substantial economic resources are spent every year on research projects aimed to improve e-service quality as an integrated part of business. SST applications help in reducing costs, improving coordination and reducing the gap between customers and the service providers. Some examples of SSTs include vending machines, automatic teller machines ATMsonline automated phone systems, information kiosks, grocery and book shop self-checkout systems Curran and Meuter, The electronic services business boomed in the early 90s and was in full swing by the late 90s, where service providers either private or public sector provided their services to clients through electronic media Internet such as e-business and e-government.
Many researchers have reported failures with SSTs when service quality requirements are not met Alm and Forsgren, The reason that avatars are selected as a specific focus area is that they are a very promising and powerful tool in providing services to customers.
As Holzwarth et al. However, at the same time there are many examples of failures Lind et al. An Avatar is an example of an e-service that can potentially reduce costs for the organisation.
Therefore, it is good to involve users and other stakeholders when designing the Avatar. This helps in achieving a better understanding of Figure 1. Involving users and developers of Avatars, as SAS' Avatar well as decision makers, could lead to improved service and increased customer loyalty. Research findings Alm and Forsgren, ; Campbell et al. Co-Design is an approach for better quality management together with service development. Co-Design is similar to action research in the sense that it acknowledges intervention as an important part of the approach.
It differs Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda action research in that also stakeholders are invited to take part of evaluation and reflection activities. It is also similar to Participatory Design as well as User Centered Design as the user is definitely in the center. As practitioners and researchers are all stakeholders working together in the design team, the theory and the practice are also closely entwined.
The work is managed as Co-Design workshops and the focus is the view of individual users and other stakeholders Forsgren, Theoretically, the work is building on systems thinking Flood, applied in ITdevelopment Fornells et al. Systems Thinking is a problem solving approach that views the problem as a part of the overall system. Systems Thinking and more specifically Soft Systems Thinking Checkland, or Systemic Thinking Ackoff, can also be regarded as a research approach.
This is further developed in research methodology in Chapter 3. This consists of people, structures and processes that work together to make an organization productive, efficient and effective Chen and Chuang, 2 ; Kapsali, ; Morandi, ; Schiuma, ; Sweeney, ; Yawson, In these specific examples, the focus is on the use of Avatars as an area of SSTs. Furthermore, knowledge sharing and learning among the participants encourages them to combine their expertise and apply it as required.
This approach is also known as CoDesigning, where participatory action takes place among the technical experts, business specialists and the users in framing the required products and services of "Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda" company Kankainen et al. According to Miller,Co-Design processes require firms to mobilize and combine their knowledge and resources in order to find new ways to reveal and exploit latent opportunities.
Important are also the dynamic interplay between stakeholders as a learning process when prototypes are developed to implemented solutions. For instance Bowen et al.
In this study, the researcher focuses on Co-Design approach resulting from the cases of Mark Municipality in Sweden and Scandinavian Airlines. A new model for collaborative efforts between academic research and business innovation is presented in this study.
In the process, Co-Design research efforts spread like a benign natural bacteria influencing the rest of the organization and can transform the ordinary quality improvement routines of the company. The case studies use improvements in service quality with Avatars as concrete examples. Avatar technology is relatively new and although numerous attempts have been made, it has been hard to measure how successful these have been.
Many decisions for investment are thus made despite lacking hard facts. All companies and organisations using or planning to use this technology are thereby potential stakeholders.
Many companies measure the satisfaction of Avatars by analyzing question and answer logs to see if the Avatar appears to give satisfactory answers. Few of these companies e. IKEA and SAS until recently have actually asked their customers what they really feel about the quality of the answers they receive, thus risking the fact that they do not know what the customers actually think.
There are also claims that Avatars help gain efficiency and save costs. However, there is little empirical data to support this assertion. For example, in Mark Municipality Salomonson et al. Alienation among individuals The lack of possible human communication with organizations. For example if a user asks about a certain flight to a specific destination an attentive person may be able to also sell the user hotel accommodation and a rental car.
The Avatar will only be able to provide a direct answer to a question. Missing nuances in speech Similarly, a real person will hear and understand nuances in the speech, which the Avatar will miss, resulting in the possibility that a potentially problematic situation may not be adequately resolved. This may lead to dissatisfaction with products and services Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda. Another area of limited research is the Avatars on web sites provided by government and municipality websites.
Limited research is carried out regarding the effects of this SST on government, municipality as well as on corporate web pages. Also, little is known about how people make use of Avatars in getting the services from a company. However, some show several positive aspects of using Avatars, such as producing more human-like interaction on otherwise impersonal Web sites. Also, they do not provide factual data regarding the actual savings or gains. The European research project Avanti shows an interesting approach with co-design to improve the quality of the dialogue between users and Avatars or Electronic assistants, the term they use for Avatars Forsgren and Albinsson, Inspired by this, this thesis is applying and Resan till liseberg fick livet att vanda the Co-Design approach as a tool for improving the effectiveness of using Avatars as a Self Service technique.
In Co-Design, IT solutions are created as service elements making it possible for clients to satisfy demands. In that way actability theory adds to Co-Design theory and in these studies it also helps to further analyse the avatars. Therefore, the researcher combined Co-Design with Actability to benefit from its analytical features.
Some cases show success, others failures, but here is a lack of studies focussing on the reasons behind the success. Many decisions for investment are thus made with the lack of important knowledge; hence, all companies and organisations using or planning to use this technology are potential stakeholders. What are the and failure factors using an Avatar? The specific objectives are: To evaluate the effectiveness of Co-Design for developing avatars for e-Services To identify the effect of Co-Design on stakeholders within and without the organisations Research Methodology For this case study, the research method consists of a literature review integrated with industry experience.
Two case studies are studied as mentioned in the scope of this research. The purpose of the research is to propose a new model of developing e-services, with special focus on Avatars. The model is based on Actability and Co-Design theory.
A case study approach was used and concentrates on two different organizations from Sweden, namely: Data collection was done through citizens, customers as well as key staff and decision makers.
Så då var det bara att vända om och tänka nytt. helt kry, så fick nästintill vända i dörren - men nu mår han bättre peppar peppar). . Hillevi älskar ju att pyssla, så vi satt säkert tre timmar och vek papper och gjorde stjärnor, pärlade och strök pärlplattor för glatta livet. Men när vi var på Liseberg i fredags var hon glad.
Läget för det goda livet, att du i Marks kommun kan leva och uppfatta ett. Förr fick jag många frågor inom alla frågor nu är det mindre eftersom många blir. Hon söker och köper mycket på nätet, bl resor men vill inte gärna betala via nätet .
på aktiviteter tillsammans, t ex åka till Liseberg och arrangera Innebandynatta.
Strandberg Tony: Mitt i livet CD kr Den FN-anställde Gerry Lane reser jorden runt i en kamp mot tiden för att förhindra en. Nu, på gränsen till nederlag, måste mänskligheten vända sig till två osannolika Dalaplan (Vinyl) Dalaplan Dalaplan (Digi) Dale Dick Guitar Legend/Very best.